Pendugaan Komponen Keseimbangan Air di Lahan Sawah dengan Linear Programming

Chusnul Arif, Budi Indra Setiawan
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Sari


Dalam pengelolaan air di lahan sawah, analisis keseimbangan air biasanya digunakan untuk menganalisis efektifitas pemberian air irigasi. Akan tetapi, seringkali dengan keterbatasan peralatan, waktu, dan biaya tidak semua komponen keseimbangan air dapat diukur. Makalah ini menyajikan metode Linear Programming (LP) untuk menduga komponen keseimbangan air di lahan sawah yang tidak terukur. Adapun tujuan studi ini adalah mengembangkan model LP untuk menduga komponen keseimbangan air di lahan sawah seperti irigasi, limpasan dan perkolasi dengan menggunakan data perubahan kelembaban tanah khususnya untuk irigasi tidak tergenang, mengevaluasi performansi model dengan membandingkan data hasil pendugaan dan pengukuran. Studi dilakukan berdasarkan hasil experiment dua musim tanam budidaya padi irigasi tidak tergenang dengan System of Rice Intensification (SRI) di NOSC, Sukabumi Jawa Barat dari tanggal 20 Agustus – 15 Desember 2011 (musim pertama) dan 22 Maret - 5 Juli 2012 (musim kedua). Model LP yang dikembangkan memiliki fungsi tujuan untuk meminimalisir total selisih kelembaban tanah hasil pengukuran dan pendugaan model. Selain itu, model LP juga memiliki fungsi batas dan kondisi awal yang ditentukan berdasarkan kondisi aktual di lapang. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa model LP dapat menduga komponen keseimbangan air dengan akurat dengan indikator nilai R2 > 0.85 (p value < 0.01) dan persen error dibawah 8%. Berdasarkan hasil pendugaan model, komponen irigasi berkontribusi hanya 34-38% dari total air masuk, sedangkan komponen evapotranspirasi tanaman dan perkolasi berkontribusi sebesar 40-44% dan 11-15% dari total air yang keluar. Hujan dan limpasan merupakan komponen yang paling besar berkontribusi pada air masuk dan keluar. Dengan metode ini, maka parameter yang membutuhkan data yang tidak terukur dapat ditentukan seperti efisiensi penggunaan air dan produktivitas air yang membutuhkan data irigasi dalam penentuannya.


Kata Kunci


Non-flooded irrigation; water balance; linear programming; paddy fields; objective function

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Referensi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31028/ji.v14.i2.79-88

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